What is ICMP type?

ICMP stands for Internet Control Message Protocol. ICMP types are used to send control messages from the source to destination computers. These messages can be used for troubleshooting, error reporting, and diagnostic purposes. What is ICMP? ICMP stands for Internet Control Message Protocol. This is a protocol that is used by routers to send error […]

How DNS MX lookup Works

DNS is the internet’s phone book. When you type in a website name, the computer has to figure out what the IP address of that site is. This is where DNS comes in. It’s basically a lookup service that lets you look up IP addresses and vice versa. To do this, DNS servers maintain records […]

How TCP connection works

TCP connection is used to establish a reliable and secure communication between two hosts. It can be used for any kind of data transfer, such as HTTP or FTP. The TCP protocol has four major components: How do two hosts communicate reliably? The figure below illustrates an example of a TCP connection between two hosts. […]

Filtering CDP LLDP packets with Tcpdump

CDP and LLDP are protocols used to discover the neighboring devices of a router. CDP is used to discover Cisco devices, while LLDP is used to discover IEEE 802.1ab (LLDP) compatible devices. What is CDP and LLDP? CDP and LLDP are protocols that are used to discover information about other devices on the network. CDP […]

Check Wildcard Certificate in SSL with Examples

SSL certificates come in two flavors, wildcard and full. A wildcard certificate is one where the certificate is signed by a third-party Certificate Authority (CA) but does not specify which websites it can be used on. This type of certificate can be used on any website that requests an SSL connection. There are some drawbacks […]

4 Useful Commands to Check Linux Version

Unlike Microsoft Windows and macOS, Linux is not a single operating system. Linux is an open-source computer operating system kernel (found in most smartphones, as well as servers) that can be customized and configured to run on any hardware architecture. Because of its flexibility, it has become one of the most popular operating systems among […]

Understanding PFX File with Examples

If you’re ever tasked with opening a file that’s written in a foreign language, you might find yourself stumped because you don’t know how to import the file into your computer. Well, fear not! In this article, we’ll be looking at the different types of files and what each one is used for. We’ll also […]

Understanding SSL Certificate PEM File and SSH PEM File with Examples

SSL and SSH certificates are important security measures used to protect information transmitted over the internet. A SSL certificate binds a public key to an SSL server, while a SSH key is used to authenticate users who connect to a server. Both types of certificates are saved in PEM format. This article provides an overview […]

How to fix ssh_dispatch_run_fatal?

If you run ssh dispatch run and it reports a fatal error, there is probably something wrong with your configuration. In this article, we’ll show you how to fix the issue. Verify ssh is installed and working When you are managing your server, the first step is to make sure that SSH is installed and […]

Risk of Wildcard Certificate in SSL with Examples

Wildcard certificates are a type of certificate that allow an SSL connection to use a single certificate to secure connections from multiple hosts. Wildcard certificates are often used in situations where all the hosts require access to the same resources, such as a website or corporate network. While wildcard certificates have some security benefits, they […]